S# 1. Never Ending Discussion?
CAH and three university students met at an online chatting
window. From the beginning to end of discussion, there were little chance or
need to intrude. Below is the record of the discussion.
CAH: Nice to meet you. Thanks for complying with our
interview. Now, please feel free to say your opinion. Let’s start with the
‘Sandwich phenomena’ then. What do you think?
Lee Dae-gun(Lee): In the case
of Korea, because ‘foreign trade’ accounts for pretty much all of our profit, it
is highlighted. The quantity of trade has increased but quality has not
Joo Bo-eun(Joo): By the way, why did it become so severe? Is there
any special reason that we could not have chased Japan’s technology?
Hong-suk(Seo): Korea has not grown enough. After achieving a higher Gross
National Income(GNI) per capital which was estimated over 10,000 dollars, we
have not been able to accomplish a 20,000 dollars GNI per capital for 12
CAH: Why didn’t it grow?
Joo: Well, because of investment
Lee: Yes. Korea has too strict restrictions and it has interrupted
investment. Moreover procedures are complicated and the Metropolitan area’s
regulation is especially severe.
Seo: Investment and employment rates go up
only when domestic demand increases. It is merely thanks to export rates that we
could maintain a 4% growth rate. However, now this ‘export’ has been meeting a
CAH: Is it a result from the absence of a ‘new growth
Joo: Korea-China-Japan’s key industries are almost the same. That
is the problem. We should find a Blue Ocean industry.(Blue Ocean means untapped
and/or uncontested markets, which provide little or no competition for anyone
who would dive in, since the markets are not crowded.)
Lee: Korea is
especially weak for a Blue Ocean industry. When a new industry comes up, the
Blue Ocean market disappears very quickly.
Joo: If one is discovered,
everyone takes advantage of it completely…ha-ha. Of course sometimes it can be a
strong point, too.
Seo: We should find a new growth industry with creative
ideas and innovating enterprises.
CAH: How about bio technology?
needs a lot of investment, but Korea lost its reputation because of the Hwang
Woo-suk incident(His ‘stem cells thesis’ research was a forgery). After the
incident, there was nothing to show in fact for the industry.
bio technology is an important industry having a huge potential. It would be
beneficial if we overcome this stagnation.
Lee: When Hwang’s incident
occurred, I thought that the press had over-criticized him. It was expected that
a positive outcome was coming up but this did not happen. Anyway, the problem of
the Korean press, which intensifies crisis, is a continuing problem these days,
CAH: In the first half of this year, according to statistics, the
‘Sandwich phenomena’ became true in the trade industry. How will it be in the
Seo: It can be really true. We have to be ready thoroughly.
Do we need to develop a ‘trade format’ which is suited to each country?
We should not live peacefully unaware, but be aware of the problems that we need
Lee: Companies that have many overseas branches have already
invented suitable products.
Joo: These are all just worn out ideas. Do we
read ethics book?
Seo: (do not mind.) And we should consider the way that
other countries fail and succeed. Taiwan’s failure or Benelux’s success from
opening-policy can be examples.
CAH: Well, now let’s talk about university
students’ ‘Sandwich pressure’. With your experience, please say your opinion
about today’s state of students.
Joo: When I entered university, I would take
an administration test or a judiciary test. However, through the activities of
environment organizations, I could reconsider what I was going to do. Becoming a
public servant and arranging desk theories were not what I wanted. When seeing
younger men who prepare for those kinds of tests excessively, I’d like to ask
them what they really want to do in the future.
Lee: I went to China for
training 2 weeks ago. Every member had a different experience and we shared each
other’s story. It was really helpful. No matter how tough seeking a job is,
experiencing the ‘real world’ is a much better way than just filling out a
Seo: I have joined many conferences that so-called ‘leaders’ of each
field have come from. Through communicating with field experts, I could become
confident. These days, students look very busy but they really don’t know what
People have said with one voice that they did not start their
actions to gain ‘something’. The starting point was not easy, but experience
made them more passionate. Even during this crisis of ‘Sandwich’, these three
young men have been able to carry out their ambitions. Our ‘CAH 100-minute
discussion’ with them was so hot and it seemed never ending.
S# 2. “We can change pressure to pleasure.” (with
university student reporters)
CAH: Due to the worsening job markets,
university students are feeling pressure from their early school days.
Seung-ho(Lee): Though every student wants better work, employment is
insufficient, especially, the so-called ‘good work’. There simply are not enough
jobs to get. These days the economic slump has accelerated this trend. It is
quite sad that students feel so much pressure about employment.
Jeong-min(Jeong): I think that it is not a good idea to call getting a job, as
the same as ‘feeling pressure’. Students have to manage to keep grades(which are
good enough to be hired) because that is what they have to do being student. In
case of internship or studying abroad, it would not be pressure any more, if one
enjoys what they do instead of considering their experience as a means to fill
out a resume.
Paik Gun-ho(Paik): Students have to do that even though they do
not want to, because companies demand those activities, which we can call
CAH: How can university students get out of this
Lee: I do not think that ‘growing ability’ and ‘growing career’ are
the same concept. These days, students can grow a career for showing off,
instead of achieving self-reliance. It is desirable to grow career in every
vacation, but it would be much better to read and study for oneself. Doesn’t it
upgrade one’s real competence?
Jeong: First, students should decide one’s
goals clearly. When we do not want to but have to do it, we feel ‘pressure’. We
should bring motivation and go forward. Then it might be ‘pleasure’.
one abandons thoughts of entering famous enterprises and decides to do other
works, (run own business or become artist, etc) they can get out of the sandwich
press. And if one works for one’s own interest and career, side-by-side, it
would be the best.
CAH: How do you think about the future of the ‘Sandwich
Lee: Neo-liberalism demands endless competition from people.
(That is why I am against it.) However, it is an important fact that this trend
is undeniable. It means not only Korea but also other countries will experience
the pressure too.
Jeong: In case of university students, I say… Lately,
companies concentrate on and tend to employ the ‘creative elite’. For example,
one who traveled to an African desert for 3 months would be preferred in a
company. Perhaps it will be a new pressure that people have to be creative
Paik: After many decades, this pressure may be diminished because of
decreased birth rates. However, obtaining the preferred jobs will continue to be
hard to catch. I’d like to annex that every young man has wandered about their
lives. It is important to get through it.
PEOPLE WHO JOINED…
? Lee Seung-ho / Korea Economy Newspaper
intern reporter, Seoul National Univ. Sociology Dept. sophomore.
Jeong-min / Korea Economy Newspaper intern reporter, The National Assembly
Internship, Inha Univ. Social Science faculty freshman,
? Paik Gun-ho
/ Campus Life 4th reporter, Chung-Ang Univ. English Education Dept.
S# 3. “Preventing capitalizing would be a
solution.”(with one economics student)
CAH: What is your opinion of
highlighting ‘Sandwich Korea’?
Han Jae-young(Han): Actually, it started after
the Korean War, 1945. Since then, China has adopted market socialism and
developed rapidly. And Japan has maintained high-level technology techniques. It
might come up again because of economic difficulty in the country.
how can we solve it?
Han: I’m not an expert so I’d like to suggest an
indirect solution. After the Vietnam War, the international economy has changed
into a capital-oriented economy. Including Korea, all countries want to ‘be
capitalized’. However, capitalizing is for only a small number of capitalists.
In fact, a lot of people who are not capitalist do not feel economic growth. It
might make the pressure we feel these days worse. I think that ‘preventing
capitalizing’ would be an indirect solution.
CAH: What do you think
about the need for developing a ‘new industry’?
Han: It is really hard to
judge. New industry requires a systemically organized plan and countries which
have national hegemony are able to do that. Now in Korea, it is hard to see such
industry. In the case of IT, Korean technology has overtaken that of United
States since 1990s but lately it is losing its reputation.
Han Jae-young, Chung-Ang Univ. Economics Dept. senior.
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