The history of Brain research by human being and the world is now...
Scientific approach to learn about the brain can be traced back to the era of ancient Greece. (400-600 B.C.), when Greek philosophers started to make detailed descriptions about the mind and spirit. They believed 'thought' came from the 'brain' or heart. In 1543, Vesalius made a descriptive map of the human nervous system. In 1637, Rene Descartes described the brain as an independent machine from the spirit, but was also related at the same time. About 160 years later, Luigi Galvani found the electronic pulse characteristics of nerves. In 1881, it was believed that the nerves system consisted of independent nerve cells and the cells are connected to each other to form a nerves route. Before long, Sherrington insisted that the nerve cells were communicating through the copula called synapse. Then for the next 50 to 60 years, there were several important discoveries about the brain.
In the 1950s, Hodgkin, Huxley, Katz and Eccles succeeded in recording electronic signals from the brain by fine electrodes. An electron microscope was invented and could observe the fine organization of the brain. For next two decades, there were also several new discoveries about the integrative function of the brain.
The 1970s was innovative year with much more discoveries. Scientists discovered the neuroregulator, which is a material that controls nerves. The CT(Computed Tomography) was invented at this time, too. These innovative developments of molecular biology could exploit the technique of gene recombination.
Research that clarifies the function of the brain grew enormously since 1975(invention of PET, equipment for tomography, similar to CT). The MRI(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) that is frequently seen in dramas was invented 4 years later. In the 1980s, the progress of computer and artificial intelligence provided many bright new prospective of realistic model(eyesight, language, memory, etc). In 1992, the fMRI was invented. It pictures partial activities of the brain. It was even said that the 'fMRI demonstrates how false memories are formed'. The argument about its effectiveness remains today.
According to recent rapid developments in brain research, many countries of the world have concentrated on studying the brain. The U.S is by far the best. Since the declaration of the 'Decade of the Brain' in 1990, the U.S. has developed a grand scale project on brain-mechanism technique, brain disease and a whole field of brain science by NIH(National Institutes of Health).
Japan has followed the U.S., too. It named the 21st century the 'Century of the Brain'. In 1997, the 'Brain Science Project' began. It is a long-range 20-year plan, and the BSI(Brain Science Institution) was founded at Riken(Rikagaku Kenky?sho, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). It has poured as much as five to 800 million yen into brain research.
Stories about 'Brain'
1. Brain (L'Ultime Secret) / Bernard Werber, 2002
If you love suspense, scientific knowledge and adventure stories, but have not read this book, you had better to run to the library. Bernard Werber shows very up to date information of our brain excitingly. The original title of the book was 'L'Ultime Secret', which means 'the ultimate secret'. A mysterious death of a famous neuropsychiatrist and a detective's gloomy foreboding... The book guides readers into the interesting world of the brain like a detective story.
2. Innovative Discovery of Brain (The Odd Brain) / Steven Juan, 1998
Have you ever thought about kleptomaniacs, who have thievish habits? Do you consider them as not immoral? You might not have. This book tells us the psychology of criminals as they related to the brain, and their biological problems. They cannot help thieving because of a brain problem. This is only a little part of the various exciting contents in the book! Unbelievable mysteries of the brain, stories about the brain in need of help and what is happening now in our brain... Cacodemonia, werewolves, the brain of serial murderers, the feeling of deja, etc are all connected with the brain. You will surely find shocking and mysterious of our weird and wonderful brains.
3. The Game / Yoon In-ho, 2007
"If you win, you get 3 billion won but if you lose, your sound body is mine!"
'The Game' shows us the shocking trades and exchanges of the brain. From a standpoint of a poor pavement artist, who is weak, it is too much to call it just a 'game'. Anyway, in the movie, an operation that exchanges the brains of two people is successful. If this can become real in the future, how fearful it is! Let alone the reversal of fortune in the ending the story is enough new.
P.S. If you have time, watch the same named film directed by David Fincher in 1997. It is too light to be instructive, but it is worth watching once.
4. Change (Henshin, 變身) / Tomoky Sano, 2005
The hero and heroin(Hiroshi Tamaki, Yu Aoi) are top stars in Japan and Korea. Some think that is enough of a reason to watch the movie. However, watch it for its extreme reviews of the movie going public. Anyway, it is about a 'brain transplant operation'. The hero who was shot in the head had the operation. Though the surgery was temporarily a success, as you can expect, the aftereffect tormented him. Finally, he realizes that the other person inside of him tries to hurt his love. How will be their future of sad love?
5. Freejack / Geoff Murphy, 1991
It is a kind of SF(Science Fiction) movie. The movie fast-forwards 20 years to the year 2009. (At that time, it was obviously the future but now, it is just next year...) The brains of the past people are being purchased by the future rich. If one's brain is sold, he or she is taken to the future. They are called 'freejack'. The hero becomes a freejack and escapes from being caught. Though it is a movie of quite long ago, the situation and background of it teaches us a lot of instructions, in the era of brain development.
Guide for Brain's Health< 저작권자 © 중앙헤럴드 무단전재 및 재배포금지 >
Did you know that the brain ages, too? Now, under the 'Well-thinking' trends, it is important to keep your brain healthy. Listed below are some ideas for keeping your brain healthy!
1. Avoid drinking too much. It is the principal factor of destroying your brain cells.
2. Have a good sleep. Irregular sleep makes your brain grow older.
3. If you learn a foreign language, your brain will be activate and enlarging its range of use.
4. Keep away from foods that include too much antiseptic and fruit sugar, instant and processed food that degrade your brain function.
5. Always try to learn new things. Stimulating the brain prevents aging of your brain.
6. Intake good food for brain cells ? brown rice, bean, tofu, fish, etc ? constantly.
7. Read and write 30 minutes a day. It is better to make sounds when reading.
8. Solve simple equations of additions, subtractions and multiplication fast and recurring. Figures are strong weapons that help brain development!
9. You need to train the nine gates of the body ? nose, eyes, ears, mouse, anus and genital organs ? harmoniously. Yoga-meditation is helpful.
10. Meet people, who have a high sense of humor. Your brain will be better because of the increase of adrenaline.